Monday, July 13, 2020

Cloud Computing and its Benefits for Small Businesses

Cloud Computing and its Benefits for Small Businesses Nowadays, we cannot talk about conducting business and bringing it online without the phrase “cloud computing” being mentioned. When the concept was first introduced, the big companies were the first to advocate it. This led to the misconception that it is applicable to mid-size to large operations, and that could not be farther from the truth. Today, even small businesses can also adapt cloud computing in their operations, and benefit greatly from it. © | MelpomeneIn this article, you will learn 1) what is cloud computing and 2) the benefits of cloud computing especially for smaller companies.CLOUD COMPUTINGBut, first things first: what is Cloud Computing?The simplest description we can probably use to give anyone an idea what cloud computing is would be “internet-based computing”, using “cloud” to represent the internet. But internet-based computing is very broad and does not fully define cloud computing.Cloud computing has been defined as the practice, or a model, of using a network consisting of remote servers that are hosted on the internet for storage, management, accessing and processing of data. It is markedly different from the traditional practice of storing, managing and processing data on the hard drive of a personal computer or, for many small businesses, on a local server. In other words, the major difference is in the sharing of resources; cloud computing allows sharing, while using only you r personal computer or local server does not.Another way to describe it would be to use the term “on-demand computing”. This is because, in cloud computing, shared data, information and other resources are provided to the computers and devices within the network on demand. And since we describe it as internet-based, all the servers, applications, storage and other services are delivered to the recipients or destinations within the organization through or via the internet.It sounds very complicated, but the concept is pretty straightforward. In cloud computing, groups of servers are made to run on (usually) low-cost and low-end technology (such as your basic personal computers) that have been configured for specialized connections. These server groups make up networks that, through the internet, distribute all the data processing tasks among them.Currently, there are no fixed standards for cloud computing, which means it is up to the companies to define and design the cloud compu ting technologies that they are using. Many find this preferable, since it allows for greater customization and, along with it, control by the company. Of course, companies that provide this type of service are bound to have their own standards, which the businesses availing of their services would have to follow or conform to.Types of cloud computingPublic cloudIn this type of cloud computing, service providers are the ones who are sought by businesses. The service provider is the one to make the applications, storage and other resources, and make them available to the general public, mainly over the Internet.Many businesses prefer a public cloud because of its ease of use and installation; they won’t set it up or install it, the provider will. There is also the added advantage of being inexpensive, particularly those who are operating within a tight budget. They no longer have to worry about investing on hardware and application, as well as bandwidth costs, since the service pro vider will have them all covered.Businesses that are growing will naturally have to deal with increasing needs in their computing resource. By availing of a public cloud, this would not be an issue, since service providers design their offerings for scalability in order to meet the expanding needs of their clients.Cost efficiency is a bigger advantage in this type of cloud computing as you only pay what you actually use. There are no wasted resources, such as applications or storage that you are paying for but do not need or actually even using, because you will be given only what you need. Therefore, you will not be made to pay for those resources that you were not able to use to begin with.Private cloudAs the name implies, this type of cloud is one that is managed by the business or the organization that uses it. Seeing as it is owned by the company, full control and customization is within the organization. The benefits are nearly the same as those that are obtained from a public cloud, except for the issue on ownership.In addition, private cloud also beats a public cloud in terms of security. By keeping the management of the computing resources in-house, you are limiting access and, consequently, security issues and leaks.It’s a different story when it comes to costs, however, since the company would have to allocate some of its resources to the payment of salaries and wages of personnel it will assign to manage the cloud. In some cases, the organization can even create a dedicated department or division to take charge of the job. There are also other expenses that will have to be incurred in cloud management, such as the cost of virtualization and other management tools that will be used by the personnel managing it.HybridThis combines features of public and private cloud, so it involves the management and maintenance of internal as well as external providers. Aside from personnel employed by the business to manage the cloud, third party service provide rs are also called in.This is generally preferred by many businesses because of its flexibility, as workloads are allowed to be moved between the platforms, especially in the face of changes in the company’s computing needs and the costs incurred in managing the cloud.What businesses who employ this type of cloud computing do is to entrust their less sensitive and critical resources to an external public cloud service provider, while leaving the more critical ones in-house, in the hands of their IT department.Others employ what is known as “cloud bursting”, where an application or resource is allowed to run in-house (private cloud) at first. However, when the computing capacity must be increased, such as when there is a sudden spike of demand for it, it will “burst” into a public cloud. Now, some managers may think this could be expensive but, as we all know of public cloud, companies will pay only for the resources they actually use.This type of cloud deployment is highly recommended for business with large or voluminous transactions, or those with complex operations. Of course, businesses would have to first assess their needs before they can decide which type of cloud computing they should use in their company.Cloud Computing for BusinessesCompute resources are considered by businesses as a utility â€" one that is consumed but has to be generated or maintained in some way. It has been likened to how businesses use electricity: many businesses, in their desire to ensure that they get the most of that specific resource, they decide to maintain their own infrastructure for power generation.That works similarly to cloud computing. With cloud computing, businesses do not have to build and subsequently maintain their own computing infrastructures for their consumption of their compute resources.If we talk in general terms, we can name three main benefits of cloud computing for businesses and other end users.Improved IT adaptability. Also referred to as IT elasticity, this refers to the ability of a company’s IT infrastructure to quickly increase or reduce its capacity and services without compromising its overall stability and performance. It should also be able to easily expand its capabilities without affecting the infrastructure’s compliance protocols. It is not enough for the IT infrastructure to be scalable; it should also have the ability to allow for “letting go” of resources or decreasing capacity, especially when they are deemed to be unnecessary.Self-service provisioning. Usually, companies would acquire the services of an external IT company or the expertise of third-party service providers for the setup, installation and maintenance of the applications, systems and services they use in business. However, thanks to cloud computing, the users can do it all themselves. It will be the users who will call the shots in the cloud computing environment.Users pay only what they use. Cloud computing allows for a metered or pay-per-use structure of payment, meaning the business will only pay for the actual workload and resources that they use, despite the fact that they have access to resources that can only be described as “unlimited”. In the past, it is common to see third-party service providers charging a fixed amount for its periodic subscription fees. However, these days, there is an evident rise in the number of service providers utilizing the pay-per-use payment structure.CLOUD COMPUTING FOR SMALL BUSINESSESWe have touched on the main benefits that businesses can derive from using cloud computing, but let us try to be more specific and focus on small businesses. The initial reaction of most small business owners when presented with the proposal of migrating to cloud would be to refuse, saying they are still too small an operation to merit using cloud. Others are also of the opinion that cloud computing is only for tech-related operations.However, once they realize what cloud computing ca n do for their small businesses, they will definitely be more open to the idea. Let us run through the many reasons why small businesses â€" yes, even those mom-and-pop shops â€" should move to the cloud.1. Lower costs, more savings, higher profitsSmall businesses are fully aware that they need hardware in order to facilitate their operations. But hardware does not come really cheap, and so some of them have to forcibly close their eyes and buy more hardware as their need increases. With cloud computing, hardware becomes more efficient. What they used to do using a roomful of computers can now be accomplished with just one or two units of hardware, situated in one corner of the office premises. In some cases, small businesses do not even have to buy new servers or powerful (and often expensive) machines, because by availing the services of a third-party provider, they will only have to pay a fee corresponding to what they used.So we are talking about less capital expenditure on hard ware and software, less physical floor area and rack space to accommodate hardware, and less electrical usage and power consumption. Even upgrading and maintaining hardware costs money, and those are costs that you can also do away with through cloud computing.Granted, computing services also cost money, and some even find the offerings of some service providers to be expensive. However, a simple cost-benefit analysis is most likely to reveal that the cost of paying these providers will be considerably lower than how much you would spend by going old-school.Lower costs mean that the small business will register higher net earnings, as well as more savings. It will also be able to put its resources to other ventures that will boost the business further.2. Increased flexibility and mobilitySmall businesses no longer have to be confined in one location: where their store or offices are located. Going mobile is certainly one of the current trends in business, and it is something that is bound to continue long into the future. Therefore, it would be to the advantage of small businesses to be more flexible and mobile.The most obvious advantage for small business would be the ability to access files, data and other information wherever they are, any time, using any device. This way, managers, employees and other members of the small organization are able to continue working even when they are away from the office. Being able to work remotely has been seen as an effective way to increase employee productivity.3. Facilitated collaboration among members of the organizationNo matter how small a business is, there are still instances when managers are unable to keep track of everything that is going on, or all the projects or tasks they have assigned to their staff. Through cloud computing, file sharing is enabled, so everyone can collaborate more easily.In the past, it is a painstaking process for more than two employees to be working on something that only has one sourc e file. This time, though, with the right permission settings, multiple employees can do so. And there is no need to worry about overlaps leading to confusion, since synchronization of all data will be done over the internet.4. Increased data security and document controlRecent developments in cloud computing technology were focused on improving security of data. Clearly, they must be effective, if we consider how even the largest companies in the world are migrating to cloud.Cloud now has security certificates and encryption processes that make data secure, thus giving small businesses peace of mind that vital and confidential information will remain so. Backup worries will plague managers and business owners less, especially since automatic backups are built into cloud.5. Increased competitivenessSmall businesses have a tendency to forever remain in the shadows of their larger rivals. Cloud computing somehow evens the playing field, particularly in terms of their IT infrastructure . As such, it gives a boost to their morale knowing that, at least in that area, they can keep pace with their competitors, even if they are much bigger and more powerful.6. Faster disaster recoveryBusinesses invest so much on high-end components for their IT infrastructure partly because of the fear that, in case of a disaster, they may lose all data and information. Recovery costs a lot of time and money, and small businesses often do not have these resources, so it takes a long time for full recovery to take place.For example, a simple power surge can have potentially devastating effects on a server, and if a small business stored everything in that server, you are looking at a major loss. There are various actions that may be taken to recover them, but that will take quite a while, so you are looking at lost productivity for days, even weeks and months.The backup and recovery solutions available in cloud make disaster recovery much faster, easier and fuss-free. Not only does it speed up the entire recovery period, it also saves them from spending money on purchasing new hardware, software and programs. Usually, companies call in third-parties who specialize in recovery solutions to take care of the problem, and these professionals do not charge cheap. That is another cost savings right there.7. Expedited workflowGoing about things the old way takes time, time that you could have spent doing other better and more productive activities. Communication becomes faster, thanks to cloud computing, and collaboration and sharing cuts down on the time it usually takes for employees to handle the logistics of meeting physically in one place, or doing their work at a designated location.Cloud computing aids greatly in speeding up the whole business process, so the company can bring its products or services much faster to the market and its end users.Fortunately for small businesses, there are a considerable number of cloud computing services that they can look into, w ith the most popular one being AWS, to name a few. When choosing which cloud computing tools to use, you’d have to look into their features to see which ones are needed by your small business.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Gender Issues Within The Arab World - 1806 Words

Executive Summary: In my research brief I focus on gender issues in the Arab world because the situation is getting better but still the problem is there and women are suffering there. The implementations I suggest might not be supported by the government , but with the help of national organizations they should realize that your sex does not matter you still have equal rights. In Phakistan, in every third hour a woman is raped and there is not any law to support her because the court needs eyewitness which is impossible to have in such situation. In Afghanistan, women can not have sexual life before getting married. These are real issues all in connection with women’s rights because in those countries, men use women and they cannot protect themselves. Outline the problem: Women’s situation is possible and necessary to change, because women are not subordinate to a man by nature. But the Arab society does this to women and nothing has changed over the last few decades so it seems if it would natural and self-evident to men to use women. The growing number of women s movements have shown the need for change. The change should be focusing on the entrenched social convection, which departed from the times of Islam teachings. It is also possible to form and regulate conditions that may be favorable to male-female relations and Islamic cultures can meet. I emphasize that the Muslim feminism is not comparable to the Western feminism, the problem is rooted there that societyShow MoreRelatedThe Portrayal Of Women During The Arab World1651 Words   |  7 Pagesglobal phenomenon that many nations, countries and cultures struggle to find equality in the portrayal of gender throughout media systems. The Middle East and the Arab World is no exception to this phenomenon, recognizing and contributing to the negatively portrayed images of Arab women represented in the global mass media. For my research paper, I chose to focus on how women in the Arab World are breaking boundaries of these negative stereotypical images, while using social media as an outlet forRead MoreDeviant Behavior And Deviant Behaviour Essay1186 Words   |  5 PagesSampson and Laub, 1992, research showed a continuity between childhood behavior and adulthood behavior mostly influenced by social history and structure. A person maybe be a member of a subculture within a larger group and in it, there is a behavior that is normal within them but considered deviant within a larger group. This person has grown in this deviant behavior and hence highly prone to develop or remain deviant. Social disorganization and conflict theories on the other hand entirely emphasizesRead MoreHegemonic Hypocrisy: A Victim of Social Scriptorium1168 Words   |  5 PagesShohat discusses about the case of being an Arab Jew, a historical paradox, as one of many social elisions. Unlike the idea of intersectionality, binarism leaves â€Å"little place for complex identities† (Shohat, 2). As an American, Jew, and Arab, she speaks of the disparities amidst a war involving all three cultural topographies. Albeit she speaks from a subjective standpoint, she does not mention the issue of racial hygiene, class, geographic divisions, and gender. Passages from Guenter Lewy, Melissa WrightRead MoreFeminism : A Feminist Discourse1454 Words   |  6 Pages Although Western feminism started in the 1900s, yet, it didn’t reach the Islamic world until most recently, a couple of hundred years later than the West. Despite the fact that both of the feminism movements come from totally different back grounds, and they are affected by different history and culture, still, both of them aimed for women’s best interests. Muslim women were profoundly feeling aggrieved by the discrimination they have against them. They stereotypical reputation about them in theRead MoreNursing Care for the Arab Culture Essay1228 Words   |  5 Pagespaper will discuss the Arab culture and focus mainly on what to do and not to do as a nurse rendering care to an Arab patient. Keywords: culture, holistic, Arab Nursing Care for the Arab Culture In any case, providing competent care to a patient of a different culture must first start with an understanding of the culture itself (Potter Perry, 2011). Culture is not limited to race and ethnicity (Khalifa, 2012). Matusiak (2013) references the U.S. government definition of Arab persons as â€Å"those whoRead MoreWomen And The Middle East And North Africa1148 Words   |  5 PagesThe diversities within North Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia (cultural, religious, political, etc.) play a crucial part in the status of women and the key features of gender roles in these particular geographic regions. The Middle East and North Africa share commonalities through Arabic and Islamic culture. Establishing equalities for women amongst the current social and political changes of Middle Eastern and North African societies stands as a difficult obstacle to overcome, but inRead MoreEconomic Trends In The Space Industry1023 Words   |  5 PagesAdditionally, the UAE is going to be the leader of the Arab world in the space industry, which, as U.S. citizens experienced in the early 50’s there is something about space programs that inspire a sense of excitement. While it is indeed a high-tech industry that cannot, by its nature, employ the masses, there is no room for those who do not truly have the knowledge in their field of subject matter expertise. This has a strong potential for the opening of these high-tech positions to qualified femaleRead MoreGender Inequality And Gender Equality1673 Words   |  7 Pages Gender inequality Women are one-half of the world population they deserve equal opportunity as men because at the end gender equality is part of humanity progress. Many women around the world are treated less favoured than men not only in countries that have traditional gender role but even in societies that believe in equal right for both male and female. Gender inequality means unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender. It results from differences in socially constructedRead MoreThe Depiction Of Western Culture1416 Words   |  6 PagesWest’s. Arab women in particular have been subjected to these stereotypes, as they are perceived to be the weaker force. Often in literature authors, particularly western men, are criticized for inaccurately portraying or writing women. The portrayals of Arab women are often characterized as weak, dependent, and submissive. This perception is derive from western culture. However, writers like Inaam Kachachi, Alifa Rifaat, and Nawal El Saadawi display Arab women in their writings like no Arab men canRead MoreDefinition of Human Rights Across the Globe1601 Words   |  7 Pagesconsidered an equal including equality for gender, race, and religion. These rights may be obtained by natural or legal authority, depending on territory, religion, national and international laws according to courts assuring that they are constructed in order to protect the freedom of every individual. The principle of human rights in international law, practice, unauthorized government organizations and regional foundations has been a public concern across the world. However, despite the applications

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Descartes s Philosophy On The Mind And Consciousness...

In modern philosophy, reality is viewed in a twofold manner: the immaterial mind on the one hand and the extended body on the other. Also, we think of reality and divided between the â€Å"I† subject and an external world of objects. This line of thinking is attributed to Rene Descartes, widely credited as the father of modern philosophy. Descartes was a proponent of metaphysical dualism. He believed that the mind and the body are distinct substances. To Descartes, we can reach certain knowledge about the mind and consciousness through introspection. He reasons that we cannot doubt our existence as ‘thinking things’ because the fact that we think is undeniable. However, we tend to be fooled by our sensory experience of the world around us, so it is possible to put the world outside of our minds into doubt. To Descartes, philosophy is about attaining certain knowledge. We look upon the world as knowing subjects. Descartes believed that we cannot properly philosophi ze without first establishing certain principles to guide our investigation. We must doubt everything that can be doubted, and only when we reach a position that cannot be doubted can we begin our quest to understand reality. Since we begin with the thinking thing, the Cogito, the mind has ontological precedence over the body. From Descartes onwards, the ultimate questions of philosophy were viewed as being epistemic in nature. The big questions in philosophy were about the relationship of the thinking subject to theShow MoreRelatedEssay on Consciousness As Determined Th1030 Words   |  5 Pages Consciousness is understood in a variety of ways. In one belief, a person is conscious when awake, but unconscious when sleeping or comatose. Yet people also do things requiring perception and thought unconsciously even when they are awake. A person can be conscious of their physical surroundings, pain and even a wish or fantasy. 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The mind is that which is responsible forRead MoreDifferences Between Marx And Feuerbach s Conceptions Of The Relationship Between Philosophy And Religion1718 Words   |  7 Pagesconsidering the differences between Marx’s and Feuerbach’s conceptions of the relationship between philosophy and religion, as well as the implications this has for their thoughts on religion, which brief discussion on the criticisms one could pose to these thinkers for their theories. What is important to note before we begin is that both of these thinkers are reacting to the Enlightenment era of Philosophy which is the idea of a rational and scientific approach to religion and the self. Kant definedRead MorePhilosophy of the Mind2347 Words   |  10 Pages    The   Philosophy   of   Mind       Introduction The philosophy of body and mind has been a highly debated topic since its launch in the 17th centaury by Rene Descartes. Since then, many philosophers have written on the subject matter and many theories have emerged as a product of this lively debate. In this essay, I will analyze and critique a selection of philosophers who ponder on the body-mind topic since the 17th century, and ultimately evaluate Paul M. Chruchland’sRead MoreThe wonders of self awareness1468 Words   |  6 PagesSelf-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals. In philosophy An early philosophical discussion of self-awareness is that of John Locke. Locke was apparently influenced by Renà © Descartes statement normally translated I think, therefore I am . In chapter XXVII On Identity and Diversity of Locke s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding he conceptualized consciousness as the repeated self-identificationRead MoreI Am Looking At Where Psychology As A Discipline1361 Words   |  6 Pagesfirst Psychological foundations are rooted in philosophy, which to this day propels psychological inquiry in areas such as language acquisition, consciousness, and even vision among many others. While the great philosophical distinction between mind and body in western thought can be traced to the Greeks, it is to the influential work of Renà © Descartes, French mathematician, philosopher, and physiologist, that we owe the first systematic account of the mind/body relationship. As the 19th century progressedRead MoreThe Mind And Body Problem1412 Words   |  6 PagesThe mind and body problem studies the relationship between the mind and the body, particularly the consciousness and the brain. The problem is traced to Descartes, who questioned how the immaterial mind could affect the material body. In his view, the mind is a thinking thing while the body is an extended thing, where the mind and the body are two separate substances, and held that there are two way causal reactions between the two. The problem arises when we question how an immaterial object affectRead MoreEssay on human evolution1305 Words   |  6 Pagesaddressing on how we and other species descended from our ancestors and how the different environment has helped to us to become more adaptable. Regarding the history of psychology, the essay will be discussing on how psychology branched off from the philosophy approach to become its own science. The essay will then go on discussing how the understanding of both human evolution and history of psychology would be used by modern psychologist. Every story has a beginning and an end. To be able to understandRead MoreHistory of Cognitive Psychology1666 Words   |  7 Pagessomething so dramatic that it is now referred to as the ‘cognitive revolution,’ and the view of mental processes that it spawned is called ‘cognitive psychology.’ What happened was that American psychologists rejected behaviorism and adopted a model of mind based on the computer† (McClelland, 2001). â€Å"Cognitive Psychology has at least three diï ¬â‚¬erent meanings. First, the term refers to ‘a simple collection of topic areas,’ that is, of behaviorally observable or theoretically proposed phenomena that areRead MoreThe Philosophical Roots Of Psychology Essay2901 Words   |  12 Pagesevolutionary psychology, and more. However, a person needs to know the history of psychology before he or she can grasp the different concepts of psychology. However, the roots of psychology are grounded in philosophy, with psychology s beginning coming from philosophers as Socrates, Plato, and Rene Descartes, and began with questions about human nature. The Philosophical Roots The beginnings of psychology come from different philosophers, such as Socrates and Plato. In all actuality, Socrates himself

Successful Student Free Essays

The enrolled in college The Developmental Writing class refreshed some of the skills I had learned in English class such as Journal writing, vocabulary enrichment, critical thinking, paragraph patterns, and short essays. The course also proved useful in improving my sentence composition and study habits The Learning Strategies course dealt with several aspects of improving my skills as a student. The first thing the course taught was that Success does not happen by luck or chance, it is the result of hard work, honest self-assessment, setting goals, and planning for the future. We will write a custom essay sample on Successful Student or any similar topic only for you Order Now Interpersonal skills must be developed by learning to cooperate with teachers, and students through understanding and acceptance. I must try to be an active learner who takes initiative to seek help, be involved by asking questions when I am unsure f the answers. The best students are self-motivated, and know what their goals are, and the surest way to reach them Discovering your learning style and putting it to use is very important, we all learn in different ways if you take the time to figure out which way works best for you your retention will be much better. After finding my particular style I am able know how to get the most from learning in a way that is the easiest and most comfortable for me. There may not be a single best way to learn, sometimes it takes a combination of different ways to allow me learn best. The class also taught me the meaning of the term Locus of Control which refers to the source of motivation. It can be either internal or external. Internal is taking responsibility for my actions, and results external means others control my motivations, and I see little connection between my actions, and their results. I found out how important the ability to use critical and creative thinking is in order to be successful in my studies. Critical thinking is the ability to use logical, conscious, and purposeful reasoning. It includes the process of self-reflection where I can examine my actions, and there uniqueness. Creative thinking has some of the same qualities, but also adds inventive and original thoughts as well. It helps me apply what I have learned in new ways. My definition of a successful student is a student who continues to do the best that he can, and always tries to improve as much as he can. I will endeavor to put all of the skills I have learned, and continue to learn here at Roan State to the best use that my ability allows. If I can manage to do so I will be more successful both as a student and later on as a graduate of Roan State So much has changed in the past months being here it is sometimes very difficult to keep it in prospective. My classes and the instructors I have been exposed to continue to reshape my way of thinking. The more I attend College the more I realize how much I had, and still have to learn. As I continue my education my ability as a student continues to improve while learning to tie the information presented to me together. I can see now why I was always told that an education is such a valuable thing to have, and not to be taken for granted. My only regret at this point of my experience is that I did not have this opportunity sooner in life. How to cite Successful Student, Papers

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Toyota Production System and 5s Essay Example

Toyota Production System and 5s Essay Introduction Brief outline of the organization Implementation of 5S with respect of TQM and complement ISO Organizational culture and change undertaken in implementing 5S Content Define 5S Importance of 5S in the organization Culture that supports the 5S in the organization Methodology of 5S implementation How it can complement TQM and ISO certification Recommend organizational change that can to be undertaken to further improve quality Conclusion Outlook of 5S for the organization Evaluate the organizational culture and change in implementing quality. Management prospective on 5S in regards to quality. An example of 5S by Toyota Definition of 5S 5S, the brainchild of Hiroyuki Hirano from Japan, is widely considered as being the basis for Lean Manufacturing as it is concerned with stability and standardization to bring about improved safety, quality, delivery performance and cost control. Why a basis for Lean? Lean Manufacturing is a methodology derived from the Toyota Production System TPS) which originated in post World War II Japan. It came about when Kiichiro Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno amongst others explored means of making a high variety of quality cars at minimal cost, given the lack of capital expenditure available at the time. The fundamental principle of TPS is to increase productivity and generate product flow through the value stream by a disciplined and focused effort on eliminating waste. The foundation for TPS is stability, i. e. minimal process variation, this being achieved by standardization of work practices. What is Waste? We will write a custom essay sample on Toyota Production System and 5s specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Toyota Production System and 5s specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Toyota Production System and 5s specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Waste (Muda) in lean terms is described perfectly by Wikipedia as being any expenditure of resources for means other than the creation of value for the presumed customer. Waste can include anything from excessive motion and transport of materials to defects, over-production and inventory. Most literature now describes the 8 wastes, although Toyota have classified many more. What are the 5Ss? 5S is a systematic approach to workplace organization. The 5Ss are: 1. Sort (Seiri) sort out what is needed and get rid of what isnt 2. Set (Seiton) a place for everything and everything in its place 3. Shine (Seiso) clean and maintain so always looks like the photo 4. Standardize (Seiketsu) make it the standard and instill discipline 5. Sustain (Shitsuke) audit the system and improve it (start again) It should be mentioned for accuracy that Toyota uses 4S. Sustainability, the fifth S, is already encompassed within the TPS continuous improvement culture. Beside the improvements on safety, quality, delivery and cost mentioned above, there are also additional behavioral benefits associated with 5S, such as increased pride and sense of ownership in the workplace, increased discipline and higher employee motivation. Where does 5S succeed? Hirano is reported to have said that good workplaces begin with 5S and bad workplaces fall apart beginning with 5S. So why is this? 5S only works when there is top-down commitment from senior management to operator level. Without this any 5S program is doomed from the outset. Also there needs to be an infrastructure in place for sustainability and continuous improvement (time and resources, ideas scheme etc. ) otherwise the best youll achieve is 4S before the system stagnates. 5S will not work if it is not correctly understood. It is not simply a tidying up exercise and if it is believed as such then the program will only succeed to the second S before eventually being considered a failure. It works when management understand 5S as being fundamental to good performance rather than secondary to it. 5S succeeds in environments where there is discipline and self regulations in place to ensure standards are kept, this being owned by the workforce itself. Standards are typically maintained through a simple daily auditing system of different areas, or zones, with a person or small team being responsible for each. Even with all this in place, long term sustainability will only be possible if the system is continually measured and improved and if members of senior management carry out periodic inspections of each area. One common error by senior management is never being visible on the factory floor. How to Implement 5S 1. Sort The first step, Sort, begins with selecting a dedicated area for focus (could be an office environment, not only a factory floor) and assigning red tags to items that are either no longer needed or their usefulness is unknown. A quarantine area needs to be assigned for all red tagged items if they cannot be thrown away immediately, or if there is a lot of uncertainty as to whether items are still required. This both frees up space in the workplace and provides time to decide whether to keep or discard the items in question. Theres a tendency at this stage for magpies to want to hang onto stuff that hasnt been used for a long time. Critical reflection is required to ensure that emotional ties do not get in the way of logic. 2. Set The second step, Set, involves finding a place for everything that is left over after Sort, keeping in mind work place effectiveness, safety and ergonomics. The following questions should be answered: †¢Where should the item be located? Ease of access is required. Keep passageways clear and avoid cables and piping on floor. †¢How large and heavy is the object? Avoid reaching, bending and lifting where possible. †¢How frequently is the item used? Organize by frequency of use and keep frequently used items close to hand. Set involves providing means for organizing items such as shadow boards, shelves, cabinets and containers. It also involves implementation of visual management to highlight to anyone whether a normal or abnormal state exists. The simplest of examples is a petrol gauge in a car. Green signals good, red signals bad. Another would be floor markings and labels indicating where an item should be found if not being used. 3. Shine The third step, Shine, requires items and the workplace to be cleaned and in a good state of repair. It is also about inspecting, as during inspection you will tend to find risks to safety and quality, for example due to damaged tools or faulty equipment. Shine does not just apply to material objects, but also people. Ensuring good condition of the correct clothing and that the correct PPE is being worn is equally important. For example gloves, hard hats, safety glasses and steel toe caps. 4. Standardize The forth step, Standardize, is about putting in place procedures and ensuring that a workplace is always how it should be. It provides visual management aids and daily checks in order to easily recognize whether the standard developed in the first three steps is being maintained. Visual management display boards in the work areas, creation of an address system and labelling of all equipment are key parts of this step. 5. Sustain The final step, Sustain is essentially about involving and motivating all members of the organization in assuring that the standards are applied and improved through employee empowerment and autonomy. Lean Manufacturing is as much about engaging and empowering the full intellectual capacity of the organization as it is about tools and methods. The PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) or Demin Cycleis the methodology adopted by most lean organizations for continuous improvement activity. Sustain not only involves daily auditing of the workplace by those that work in it, but also periodic inspections by all management levels. For example by local managers on a weekly basis to ensure all check sheets are signed off, and by the senior managers on a monthly basis. Many companies have recognition or reward schemes in place to encourage healthy competition between work areas or between factories within the same organization. This also serves to help generate and turn improvement ideas into action.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Statutory Interpretation In Australia essays

Statutory Interpretation In Australia essays Statutory interpretation is where judges interpret the meanings of words in a statute to determine and classify if and how it will apply in similar or different cases. This statutory interpretation or judicial interpretation can be created and applied as judicial precedents for other cases. Judges are making laws when determining the words in an Act. Statutes need interpreting for a number of different reasons. Parliaments language in acts of parliament can be ambiguous and unclear. Many words in an act may need definitions and classifications. The interpretation of the statute helps to clarify the intention and words of the statute. An example of this is the SA Road Traffic Act in the case of R v McGuinness, which needed to be interpreted so that the word driving was clearly defined to clearly understand what the term driving involved. With changes in time and circumstance there is a change in societys values and attitudes and therefore their must be a change in the way statutes are interpreted. An example regarding the legislation on telephonic devices, is the wording other like services meant to include fax or digital photographs? This must be decided by statutory interpretation. Many meaning of words has changed from there past meanings and statutory interpretation is needed to explain exactly what the words mean and what the Act is intended for. It is also needed for ambiguities, when different words and meanings are used in Acts and Regulations were disputes are created. The complexity of the law in areas such as taxation law can be very complicated and cause disputes regarding the meaning of the legislation, statutory interpretation is required to solve this problem. It is needed to decide how words of an Act apply to a particular case. Parliamentary aids or guidance along with common law guidance is used when deciding the meaning of statutes and regulations. Pa...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

How to Teach the Past Continuous to ESL Students

How to Teach the Past Continuous to ESL Students The main concept to relay when teaching the past continuous is the idea that the past continuous expresses an interrupted action. In other words, the past continuous speaks about what was going on when something important happened. The past continuous can be used by itself to express what happened at a precise moment in the past. However, the most common use is together with the past simple  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹(when something happened). You might want to consider teaching the past simple together with the past continuous for intermediate level classes, as the past simple will be review for students. Introduction Start by speaking about what was interrupted. Describe an important past event and then fill in the details as a painter would fill in background details by using the past continuous form. This immediately illustrates the idea that the past continuous is used to set the context of what was happening at that moment in time. Id like to tell you about the day I met my wife. I was walking through the park, the birds were singing and it was raining just a little bit when I saw her! She was sitting on the bench and reading a book at that moment. Ill never be the same. This example is exaggerated for a reason. It boldly conveys the point. Continue introducing the past continuous by asking students simple questions in the past simple about events. Follow up these questions with a question asking what was happening when the event occurred. When did you leave home this morning - At nine oclock.What was your sister doing when you left home?Where did you meet your girlfriend? - At school.What were you doing when you met her? The next step in teaching the past continuous is to include simultaneous actions using while. Explain that while is used when two actions happen at the same time in the past. Its a good idea to point out the difference between while and during, to help avoid confusion. Practice Explaining the Past Continuous on the Board Use a past continuous timeline to illustrate interrupted action. Contrasting this timeline with the past continuous for something happening at a specific point in the past may help illustrate the difference between the two uses. Make sure that students understand the use of time clauses with when and while to help them use the past continuous in context. Comprehension Activities Comprehension activities such as using photos in magazines will help with the past continuous. In this case, make it clear to students that they are to describe the event in the past. You can model this by using a photo in a magazine to describe such an event. Dialogues beginning with What were you doing? will help students practice. A creative writing exercise on the past continuous will also help students build their ability to integrate the past continuous into more advanced structures. Challenges The single greatest challenge to learning the past continuous is deciding which action is the main event: in other words, which event interrupted the action in progress in the past moment in time? Other challenges can include the use of the past continuous to express an activity that happened over a period of time. Its crucial for students to understand that the past continuous describes a particular moment in time, and not a completed event. Here are examples of this type of issue: I was studying science yesterday.She was cooking dinner last night. In other words, the past continuous needs the context of another event when stopped the action in progress at the time.